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In addition, the Vikings used skis from the 9th to the 11th century. Skis are still occasionally used for travel in rural areas of Russia and the Scandinavian countries.
Skiing also has long been employed for military purposes. Norwegian men on skis reconnoitred before the Battle of Oslo Ski troops were also used in Sweden in , and from the 15th to the 17th century, skis were used in warfare in Finland, Norway, Russia, Poland, and Sweden.
Jens Emmahusen wrote the first skiing manual for Norwegians in Since there have been military ski competitions with monetary prizes.
These competitions may have been the forerunner of biathlons , which combine skiing and target shooting. Military skiing continued into the 20th century where snow conditions and terrain favoured their use for scouts and for a type of mounted infantry with a first-strike advantage against small objectives.
Many veterans, especially of World War II, were very active in promoting the sport of skiing after returning to civilian life.
Skiing both as recreation and as a sport was a natural development from its utilitarian applications. There was competitive skiing in California in the s on straight downhill courses, using foot 3.
The first big ski-jumping event took place at Christiania now Oslo in Before the midth century, skiing was limited by the primitive bindings that attached the ski to the boot only at the toe, which made it all but impossible to ski downhill on steep slopes or slopes that required any significant maneuvering.
After drying out, the birch roots became stiff and provided better stability and control than earlier efforts with leather straps had.
With this innovation , modern downhill skiing , or Alpine skiing, with its characteristic speed and turns, became possible. At first, Alpine skiers had to ascend on foot to a height before being able to ski down, which severely limited the number of downhill runs skiers could make in a day, even if they had the energy to keep climbing back up the slope.
This changed with the introduction of a succession of devices in the s—from rope tows to chairlifts and gondola lifts—that eliminated exhausting climbs up the slope and made it possible for one to ski downhill four to five times more in a day than earlier skiers could manage.
With the invention and installation of ski lifts in the s, Alpine skiing became an increasingly popular and common activity, first in Europe and North America and then later in Australia, New Zealand , Chile, Argentina, and Japan.
The Pyrenees, which stretch along the frontier between France and Spain, had been the scene of ski competitions before World War I, and skiers had been active in the Atlas Mountains of northwest Africa prior to Television coverage of skiing events, which began in the s, also did much to increase the popularity of skiing worldwide.
Another factor that contributed to the spread of skiing was the introduction during the late s of snowmaking machines, which guaranteed adequate snow for vacationers when the weather was uncooperative.
Nordic, or classic, skiing consists of techniques and events that evolved in the hilly terrain of Norway and the other Scandinavian countries.
The modern Nordic events are the cross-country races including a relay race and ski-jumping events.
The Nordic combined is a separate test consisting of a km cross-country race and special ski-jumping contest, with the winner determined on the basis of points awarded for performance in both events.
There are numerous factors that differentiate the various individual cross-country races, such as the type of start, the style of skiing, and the distance.
With the exception of one event, all cross-country races begin with a staggered start in which competitors are spaced 30 seconds apart. Skiers are thus racing against the clock, not each other directly.
Races with pursuit formats, in which one racer or team is given a head start and the other racer or team attempts to catch up, typically involve two runs, with the racers or teams exchanging roles; ultimately, the skiers race against each other rather than the clock.
Sprint races of about a kilometre are growing in popularity. The other important aspect of a cross-country race is the style of skiing.
Until the s there was only one style, now called classic, in which skiers follow parallel tracks. This innovative style is now used in certain cross-country events.
The skating technique requires longer poles and shorter skis than the classic style. It also requires higher boots that give improved ankle support.
Individual Nordic events—in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping—were first included in the Olympics at the Winter Games at Chamonix, France, in By the start of the 20th century, a second upstart style of skiing competition had joined the older established cross-country skiing races and ski-jumping contests of Nordic skiing.
The downhill races of this Alpine skiing, developed in the mountainous terrain of the Alps in central Europe, were generally dismissed by Nordic skiers, who considered their annual cross-country and ski-jumping events at the Holmenkollen Ski Festival near Oslo from and the Nordic Games held quadrennially from to and to to be the only proper representation of the sport of skiing.
Modern Alpine competitive skiing is divided into four races— slalom , giant slalom , supergiant slalom super-G , and downhill —each of which is progressively faster and has fewer turns than its predecessor on the list.
Super-G and downhill are known as speed events, which are contested in single runs down long, steep, fast courses featuring few and widely spaced turns.
The Alpine combined event consists of a downhill and a slalom race, with the winner having the lowest combined time. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut at the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, where a combined race featuring both downhill and slalom events was held.
The first giant slalom Olympic competition took place at the Winter Games in Oslo, and the supergiant slalom was added at the Winter Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
That same year the combined event, which had been removed from the roster of Olympic events in the s, returned as an official event.
It was dropped for the Winter Games in Nagano, Japan, however, in favour of two new events—the combined slalom a slalom run coupled with a giant slalom run and the combined downhill comprising a supergiant slalom run and a downhill run.
The Winter Games in Salt Lake City , Utah, once again featured an event that combined one downhill and two slalom runs. The Winter Games in Turin, Italy, included combined downhills and slaloms for men and women.
Freestyle skiing focuses on acrobatics and includes three events: Formerly known as ballet, acro was invented in the early s in Europe.
The performance is scored by judges on the basis of artistic impression and technical difficulty. The equipment for acro varies from that of Alpine skiing; the poles are longer and thicker, and the skis are shorter.
In recent years acro skiing has been losing out in popularity to the more gymnastic events. Somersaulting and other tricks were exhibited before World War I, but it was not until about that such stunts aerials were popularized by Norwegian Stein Eriksen , who won a gold medal in the giant slalom at the Winter Games in Oslo.
There are two varieties of aerials: Instead, the skier performs such jumps as the daffy with one ski extended forward, the other backward or the spread eagle.
In inverted competition contestants execute flips and somersaults, often reaching heights of some 50 feet 15 metres. On the basis of the degree of difficulty, the routine is scored on form and technique 50 percent , takeoff and height 20 percent , and landing 30 percent.
Mogul skiing , the navigation of large bumps moguls on the slope, was incorporated into competition shortly after the introduction of aerials.
There are also freestyle combined competitions in which skiers compete in acro, aerials, and moguls; the winner is determined by the total score of all three events.
Widespread popularity quickly established skiing as a serious sport. After an appearance at the Winter Games in Calgary as a demonstration sport, freestyle skiing was approved for Olympic competition.
World championships sanctioned by the FIS have been held in Nordic events since for men and since for women. Women also compete separately from men in cross-country events.
World championships have been held in Alpine skiing since , with men and women competing separately. A World Cup in downhill has been awarded since , in slalom since , and in giant slalom since Originally, snowboarding competitions were governed by the International Snowboarding Federation ISF , which was formed in and began holding world championships in The FIS recognized snowboarding as a sport in and began holding its own world championships in snowboarding in Shortly afterward, the International Olympic Committee recognized the FIS as the official sanctioning body of the sport for Olympic purposes.
And a big reason for the decision is that it's becoming more difficult to be away from his wife, Karen, and their four daughters who range in age from one to nine years old.
Canadian slopestyle skier Dara Howell will miss the rest of the season after undergoing knee surgery to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament.
Former national ski coach Bertrand Charest is seeking to have his sexual-assault sentence reduced by at least half. Georgia Simmerling has retired from ski cross racing, but intends to continue track cycling with an eye towards the Olympic Games.
Simmerling, from West Vancouver, B. Marit Bjoergen, the most decorated Winter Olympian in history, says she is retiring from cross-country skiing.
The year-old Norwegian told public broadcaster NRK "I don't have the motivation needed to give per cent for another season and that's why I choose to retire.
Canadian cross-country skier Brian McKeever has captured his third gold medal of the Pyeonchang Paralympics. The year-old from Canmore, Alta.
The content you are looking for is unavailable at this time, please check back soon for updates. All You Need Is Internet. Snowfall, wind cancel season-opening men's World Cup race The season-opening men's World Cup giant slalom that was cancelled due to bad weather at the Rettenbach glacier on Sunday will be rescheduled for another resort in Europe.
Brignone leads season-opening GS after 1st run Federica Brignone led the season-opening women's World Cup giant slalom Saturday after a shortened first run in difficult weather conditions.
Olympic champion Svindal sees ' chance' of racing again Aksel Lund Svindal's chronically injured knee felt so terrible after last season that retirement seemed his only option.
Hirscher still favourite for overall title Marcel Hirscher's off-season preparations have been seriously hindered for a second straight year.